Gretna Music's Blog

About neuroscience and music (mainly classical). Exploring the relationship of music and the brain based on experience of two careers.

July 25, 2016

More Music of Our Summer of Love

Notes for July 31 concert by the Wister Quartet and Cynthia Raim, pianist
Antonín Dvořák, Romance in f minor, B. 39 
Dvořák was a musician of wide and eclectic background. As a teenager he played in the Prague conservatory orchestra when it needed augmentation for big works like Tannhäuser and Lohengrin, and then began his career as a fervent Wagnerian. In 1863 he played under Wagner in a concert that, among other things, introduced the preludes to Tristan and Die Meistersinger to Prague.
The term “romance” (Spanish: romance/romanza) has a centuries-long history. Applied to narrative ballads in Spain, it came to be used in the 18th century for simple lyrical pieces not only for voice, but also for instruments alone. According to The Oxford Dictionary of Music, “romance” implies a “specially personal or tender quality,” hence we found it most suitable for our “Summer of Love.”

Dvořák wrote this Romance for Violin and Orchestra  for Josef Markus, leader of the Provisional Theatre Orchestra in Prague to play at the annual concert of the orchestra at Žofín Palace He derived the work from the slow movement, Andante con moto quasi allegretto, of his String Quartet No. 5 in f minor, composed in 1873 before he was widely known. Adolf Čech conducted the first performance of the Romance in December 1877. The quartet was neither performed nor published in his lifetime. 

The version of the Romance in F minor for violin and piano, dedicated to the violinist František Ondříček, was also not published in Dvořák’s lifetime. It is in sonata form: a graceful melody leads to a theme of similar character in a contrasting key, followed by a more restless theme and eventually to an episode of strident chords. The original calm mood prevails and the themes return before the work ends in F major.

Herbert Murrill (1909 - 1952)String Quartet 

Herbert Henry John Murrill, an English composer with a distinctive and versatile voice, had wide-ranging musical sympathies and a far greater output than the tiny amount so far performed or recorded might suggest. His untimely death from cancer led to neglect during the latter half of the 20th century, as was true for several other British composers who, through war or ill-health, died young: Browne, Butterworth, Coles, Farrar, Hurlstone, Kelly and Whitlock, to name a few. Recent research and publications by Michael Barlow and Relf Clark may help to rehabilitate Murrill’s reputation.

Son of a “cork merchant’s clerk,” Murrill was born in London and attended Haberdasher’s Aske’s School in Hatcham before his musical talents won him a scholarship to the Guildhall School of Music. He gained a similar award to the Royal Academy of Music, where he studied for three years with York Bowen (for piano), Alan Bush (for harmony) and Stanley Marchant (for organ and choir-training). In 1928 Murrill ‘went up’ to Worcester College, Oxford as organ scholar. Several early songs survive from his Oxford period. He took a full part in the musical life of the University becoming President of the University Musical Club. On leaving Oxford he served as organist of Christ Church, Lancaster Gate and St Thomas’s Church, Regent Street, London.

The immediate pre-war period seems to have been a time of personal turmoil for Murrill, judging by the emotional outpouring of this four-movement String Quartet (1939). As Robert Schumann dedicated his string quintet (see below) to his wife Clara, Murrill dedicated his to the Leighton Quartet and its cellist, Vera Canning, whom he married in 1941. The opening Allegramente is cast in a minor. The heart of the work is the sinewy slow movement, Andante molto moderato, marked at its climax con intensiti, that Murrill requested to be played at his funeral.

Robert Schumann, Piano Quintet in E-flat Major, Op. 44 

In January 1842 Schumann went into one of his recurrent depressions. “I’m very bad with Clara… Much drinking…. Always sick and melancholy… Still sick [14 February].” These symptoms may have been associated with Clara’s preparations for a long concert tour. Schumann had agreed to go with her, but he really wanted to stay home and compose. After returning alone from the trip in March—their first separation since getting married—he worked on counterpoint exercises and fugues, something he often did as therapy when he was depressed and thinking his life was “miserable.” He also studied quartets of Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn, but by April still depressed and “drinking too much” he couldn’t compose. Fugue exercises with Clara near the end of May seemed to help. 

Just before his 32nd birthday in June ideas suddenly began to flow. He composed daily for two weeks and finished three(!) string quartets on June 22. To Clara he announced, proudly, “three children, barely born, and already completed and beautiful.” That was a stunning achievement.

Though exhilarating, the achievement left Schumann feeling exhausted and drained, win “gloomy melancholy.” He had moved into a “quiet little nook” of his apartment in order to work undisturbed. In August he recuperated during a brief vacation with Clara in Bohemia where they visited Austrian Chancellor Metternich in his castle. Schumann was in such awe of the “great man . . . his big, wise eyes, his firm robust stride, and above all that clear, distinct voice,” that when Metternich offered his hand, he was “too embarrassed to take it.”

After this holiday Clara reported herself pregnant again (“hopefully”). Schumann responded with “a bad hangover” on her birthday. Psychiatrist Peter Ostwald continues: “Whether these announcements were directly related is unclear, but his feeling of simultaneous elation and depression seems to have generated a composition that has become one of the pivotal chamber music works of the 19th century, the Quintet for Piano and Strings in E-flat major, Op.44.”

Written for Clara and dedicated to her when eventually published in 1843, the quintet is like a small piano concerto. Clara could perform it at home in the typical chamber music drawing-room or in a medium-sized hall like ours for the public, without need for a symphony orchestra. The combination of piano and strings was not new, but earlier similar works by Boccherini or Schubert had included a double bass. Schumann’s combining the piano with a string quartet served as a model for later works by Brahms, Dvořák, Elgar, Goldmark, Spohr, Thuille, Reinecke, Taneyev, d’Indy, Franck, and other composers.

While finishing the piano quintet, Schumann began to feel ”melancholic” again. He may have had “seasonal depressive disorder” (SAD), and after a few “dreadful sleepless nights” he rapidly gave birth to another giant in the chamber music canon, the Quartet for Piano and Strings, op. 47, also in E-flat major. No wonder we call 1842 Schumann’s “chamber music year.” And you can see why the connection between madness and creativity can be so intriguing.

July 22, 2016

Gretna Music 森林公園-yoku

The distinctive location of our concert hall deep in the forest has helped attract audience to our concerts. The same music in a high-school auditorium or a community center probably would not have lasted for 40 years. And the Mount Gretna Playhouse, rebuilt in 1995 to replicate an 1892 structure, is well-sized for our music (like the Schumann Piano Quintet on July 31) and has pretty good acoustics for an outdoor (and even indoor) venue. Of course the surrounding Gretna community is quaint and distinctive. And there is the Jigger Shop. . . .
A neighbor, Fred Opalinski, just called my attention to another reason for the attraction. Twenty five years ago Japanese scientists reported on a small study that suggested walking in a forest could provide a lift in mood and relieve stress. They wondered whether doing most anything -- just being -- in a forest might be more beneficial to health than in an urban setting. Apart from the calming visual images and forest sounds, they wondered whether "phytoncides," natural substances released by plants into the environment, might cause salutary effects. 

They introduced the term, shinrin-yoku, "forest bathing," to emphasize that we might actually breathe in "components emitted from the forest," not simply escape the toxicity of urban air. Forests, they theorized, may provide an opportunity to visualize, touch, listen to, and inhale nature. More broadly shinrin-yoko means bathing in biodiversity in an environment more like the one in which humans for millennia have evolved. We haven't had the additional hundreds of centuries necessary to evolve into a species well-adapted to urban life (and air). 

Research since then, reported in TIME (July 26) and also reviewed (for scientists) in The Journal of Physiological Anthropology (2015;35:1), begins to try to answer why and how spending time in forests may relieve various symptoms and possibly improve your health. 

As I pointed out in previous posts, humans have always made music, even when we were hunter-gatherers. No further evolution is required for that. I just returned from a magical week of music at Interlochen (see Jul 12). Talk about trees!

For our part we say that for the modest price of a concert ticket you can engage in healthy 'forest bathing,' shinrin-yoku, while you listen to good music. Better than pumping iron or jogging!

July 12, 2016

Changing of the Guard at Interlochen

by Carl Ellenberger, MD

More than once as I slowed my car to turn into the Interlochen gates during a visit last week, I noticed, just feet from my rear window, massive bumpers and headlights flashing by impatient drivers of pickups, most likely towing a brace of jet skis or dirt bikes. As I turned, they roared past jeering and displaying derisive hand gestures that date back to ancient Greece. Their drivers resented me, an effete 'artsy' person delaying their vacation at the state park that shares the isthmus between two lakes with the Interlochen Center for the Arts. 

But once through the new gates (required by Homeland Security, I was told) I felt comfortable and secure in a place I had called home for ten summers many decades ago. The blue lakes, towering pines, and cacophony of music from every direction is my concept of heaven. Where else could you hear one orchestra playing Mussorgsky with your left ear and another playing Brahms with your right, while directing your view between the dedicated kids on stage and sailboats skimming across the lake beyond?

The venerable 89-year-old Interlochen Center for the Arts will soon select a new President, the first in 14 years, to guide the institution in its mission,

"to inspire people worldwide through excellence in educational, artistic and cultural programs, enhancing the quality of life through the universal language of the arts."

and, as Founder, Joseph E. Maddy, wrote:

"to develop and enhance the mental, intellectual and creative capacities of our nation's young people, to bring forth their innate potentialities, to prepare them for the cultural, intellectual and moral leadership so necessary for this nation's survival."

My ten summers at Interlochen accomplished both versions of that mission for me -- at least the parts about enhancing capacities and bringing forth innate potentialities, not to mention the life-long friendships. The experience definitely shaped my life more than any other, excepting perhaps that at Yale Medical School. 

The mission has become even more critical in today's world, though the country (and beyond) must be a better place because of the presence of over 120,000 other Interlochen alumni. They populate not only 17% of the chairs in US orchestras (not fact-checked), possess hundreds of Tony and Grammy awards, but also inhabit all other occupations. Among them are the current Interlochen Board President, former Managing Director at Goldman Sachs, and Vice President, a Professor of Ophthalmology at Johns Hopkins. Early music and arts education prepare kids for almost anything.

Interlochen nurtures children as young as 3rd graders in a creative artistic environment, guided by capable and caring people, at a time in their lives when they are most receptive. (By college age it is too late to decide to become a musician.) It replaces opportunities withdrawn from many public schools and often not present in homes. Imagine how it feels when your childhood friends value making music, art, dance, drama and poetry as much as prowess in 'hitting' one another on the football field. The competition is just as keen but the qualities and skills developed last a lifetime. 

environment, both natural -- 1,200 wooded acres between two large glacial lakes -- and human, is crucial. Living with others who share similar values and aspirations, students play in an orchestra conducted by some of world's best conductors like JoAnn Falletta (or John Phillip Sousa in the past). A concertmaster of a major orchestra, like Martin Chalifour of the LA Phil, may join them in the violin section. They accompany soloists like Van Cliburn (in my day) or Yo Yo Ma, and study their instruments and chamber music with artists like flutist Paula Robison. They see and act in Shakespeare plays, attend dance concerts by the Martha Graham Company (or by cabin mates), meet authors, poets and composers (like Howard Hanson or Aaron Copland) and try to emulate them. A cabin counselor may be a band director or a jazz pianist. Role models are limitless and diverse, cabin mates may be aspiring writers, painters, film makers, or Broadway singers. The server in the cafeteria line or the lifeguard may be a clarinetist or an actor. All of these people are potential life-long friends. Students hear efforts of their teachers and colleagues and play for one another. Their parents or grandparents may have been 'campers' in years past; some may even be working on campus.

During the school year the Interlochen Arts Academy, a boarding high school, distills and intensifies all these activities for 500 high-school students in a similar, albeit cooler, environment. They have graduated 43 Presidential Scholars, almost one each year. Interlochen Public Radio broadcasts news and information from one station and classical music and jazz from another. The College of Creative Arts offers continuing education for adults and Interlochen Presents, a performing arts series, stages hundreds of student, faculty, and professional performances and exhibits each year.

With an annual operating budget over $40 million and an endowment valued at $120 million, Interlochen is a non-profit corporation but the culture is anything but "corporate." It does not exist to financially enrich stockholders or executives. Instead, all the 'stakeholders' of Interlochen aim to enrich the lives of younger generations, and thus the lives of all of us. Board members are not paid and some faculty and staff accept less than usual financial compensation in return for just being there and participating. 

Interlochen is a "chautauqua" in the generic sense of that Iroquois name of a lake in New York (as Native American Odawa people named the two Interlochen lakes: 
Wahbekaness and Wahbekanetta), an oasis where the best efforts of younger generations of humanity are nurtured and protected during critical developing years from the terrorized, polarized, 'open-carry' society around it. That environment is made and tended by hundreds of people, all with different backgrounds, talents and responsibilities, and history and memories. Not surprisingly, loyalty to Interlochen probably surpasses that to most other institutions of its kind. Alumni comprise a vast and generous resource for sustaining and promoting the environment. 

The new president will know that the Interlochen Environment is also fragile and easily perturbed. S/he should be assertive and powerful in maintaining and advancing Interlochen's place in a world increasingly harsh for the Interlochen mission, but at the same time set and protect the Interlochen Environment: facing both outwards as an effective, sometimes ruthless, corporate CEO and inward as a caring, listening, supportive leader of a large family, enabling all to achieve their greatest potential. S/he should carefully and sensitively replenish the institution with new people and ideas, increase diversity and opportunities for as many socioeconomic levels of younger generations as possible, including the most outstanding members among them, to share the Interlochen experience.


June 10, 2016

Love Music from the End of the 19th Century; One love lost, two ‘happy’ endings

Notes for July 10 concert in memory of Nancy Hatz

by Carl Ellenberger, MD

Sibelius, Rakastava (Beloved)

“Born in 1865, Sibelius was not merely the most famous composer Finland ever produced but the country’s chief celebrity…. Asked to characterize their culture, Finns invariably mention, alongside such national treasures as the lakeside sauna, Fiskars scissors, and the Nokia cellular phone, ‘our Sibelius.’” The composer may account singlehandedly for the fact that, “The annual Finnish expenditure on the arts is roughly two hundred times per capita what the U.S. Government spends on the National Endowment for the Arts.” (Alex Ross)

Finland has one of the richest stores of folk poetry in the world. Poems were passed on by word of mouth over centuries until finally written down by scholars like the Finnish physician Elias Lönn-rot (1840) in the belief that national identity has its roots in folklore. The Kanteletar, a collection and companion to the better-known Kalevala, may have inspired Sibelius to write Rakastava in 1894, originally as a cycle of four songs for men’s a cappella chorus. In one song a girl misses her beloved (here translated from Goethe’s German translation of the original, the combined result, I assume, losing the traditional poetic meter of the spoken Baltic-Finnic language):

Should my treasure come  
my darling step by 
I’d know him by his coming 
recognize him by his step 
though he were still a mile off 
or two miles away. 
As mist I’d go out 
as smoke I would reach the yard 
as sparks I would speed 
as flame I would fly; 
I’d bowl along beside him 
pout before his face. 
I would touch his hand 
though a snake were in his palm 
I would kiss his mouth 
though doom stared him in the face 
I’d climb on his neck 
though death were on his neck bones 
I’d stretch beside him 
though his side were all bloody.

Sibelius used the song cycle as the basis for a three-movement orchestral suite, Rakastava, for string orchestra, percussion and triangle(!), to which he assigned the opus number 14. He completed it in 1912, the year of his Fourth Symphony, “music as forbidding as anything from the European continent at the time” (Ross) that mystified the audience at its premier. Sibelius often conducted the Rakastava suite together with his symphonies into the 1920s, because, he said, the piece "captivated audiences.”

  Rakastava, “The Beloved”
Rakastetun tie (The way of the lover)
Hyvää iltaa ... Jää hyvästi (Good night, farewell to the beloved),

The cumulative effect of the first movement is one of bittersweet happiness--the remembrance of an absent lover. In the choral version of the third movement a solo tenor sings of the two lovers' sorrowful parting, "Goodnight-Farewell," a Renaissance-inspired piece with modal (Dorian) shadings, and a constantly changing metrical scheme using measures of five and seven beats. By the dark Dorian ‘farewell’ ending we are not feeling happy.

Wagner, Siegfried Idyll

Wagner wrote about his second meeting with his future wife Cosima, the daughter of Franz Liszt and still married to composer/pianist Hans von Bülow: "She fell at my feet, covered my hands with tears and kisses ... I pondered the mystery, without being able to solve it.” 

Wagner composed Siegfried Idyll as a birthday present to Cosima after the birth of their son Siegfried in 1869. It was first performed on Christmas morning, 1870, by a small ensemble of the Tonhalle Orchestra Zürich on the stairs of their villa at Tribschen (today part of Lucerne, Switzerland). The late conductor Hans Richter played the 13-measure trumpet part in that private premiere performance.

On awakening Cosima responded: “As I awoke, my ear caught a sound, which swelled fuller and fuller; no longer could I imagine myself to be dreaming: music was sounding, and such music! When it died away, Richard came into my room with the children and offered me the score of the symphonic birthday poem. I was in tears, but so were all the rest of the household. Richard had arranged his orchestra on the staircase, and thus was our Tribschen consecrated forever.” (The couple obviously had a keen sense for publicity!)

The original title was Triebschen Idyll with Fidi's birdsong and the orange sunrise, as symphonic birthday greeting. Presented to his Cosima by her Richard. "Fidi" was the family's nickname for (son) Siegfried. The birdsong (that bird will be me!) and the sunrise probably refer to incidents of special significance to the couple.

The Idyll music also sounds toward the very end of Wagner’s opera Siegfried (of Der Ring des Nibelungen) after Siegfried awakens the exiled Brünnhilde on her rock and beholds a woman for the first time in his life. (He discovered that anatomic fact after cutting the shield from her breast with his sword before she awakened.) After a short period of confusion, his passion kicks in and he starts after Brünnhilde (“eye to eye, mouth to mouth”) who, to the Idyll, recognizes her vulnerability and briefly pleads for preservation of her virginity (“do not touch me, do not upset me!”). Her resistance is but short-lasting and they embrace in “radiant love, laughing death!” as the curtain falls. (I didn’t make that up!) A happy ending —  until the next opera.

Wagner originally intended Siegfried Idyll to remain a private piece, but financial pressures led to his selling the score to a publisher in 1878 after expanding the orchestration to 35 players to make the piece more marketable. Though the original is for a more cost-effective chamber orchestra of 13 players: flute, oboe, two clarinets, bassoon, two horns, trumpet, two violins, viola, cello and  double bass, we will augment the strings for our performance. 

Schoenberg, Verklärte Nacht

Premiered in 1902 Verklärte Nacht (Transfigured Night) was inspired by a poem by Richard Dehmel in which a ‘legitimately pregnant’ but unfaithful wife confesses her ‘guilt’ to her lover, a story that Schoenberg admitted in 1949 that “many a person today might call ‘repulsive.’” In 1997 Richard Taruskin wrote, “I suspect that today it would be the poem’s misogyny (a sinful modern Eve forgiven and redeemed by a godlike magnanimous man) that offends.” In our contemporary world I suspect that the poem wouldn’t even cause modern readers to blink.

Dehmel's poem describes a man and woman walking through a dark forest on a moonlit night. The woman shares her dark secret with her new lover: she bears the child of another man. The stages of Demel's poem are reflected throughout the music, beginning with the sadness of the woman's confession, a neutral interlude wherein the man reflects upon the confession, and a finale reflecting the man's bright acceptance (and forgiveness) of the woman: O sieh, wie klar das Weltall schimmert! Es ist ein Glanz um Alles her (See how brightly the universe gleams! There is a radiance on everything), so there is a happy ‘radiant’ ending similar to Brünnhilde and Siegfried’s.

Two people are walking through a bare, cold wood;
the moon keeps pace with them and draws their gaze.
The moon moves along above tall oak trees,
there is no wisp of cloud to obscure the radiance
to which the black, jagged tips reach up. 
A woman’s voice speaks:
“I am carrying a child, and not by you.
I am walking here with you in a state of sin.
I have offended grievously against myself.
I despaired of happiness,
and yet I still felt a grievous longing
for life’s fullness, for a mother’s joys
and duties; and so I sinned,
and so I yielded, shuddering, my sex
to the embrace of a stranger,
and even thought myself blessed.
Now life has taken its revenge,
and I have met you, met you."

She walks on, stumbling.
She looks up; the moon keeps pace.
Her dark gaze drowns in light.

A man’s voice speaks:
“Do not let the child you have conceived
be a burden on your soul.
Look, how brightly the universe shines!
Splendour falls on everything around,
you are voyaging with me on a cold sea,
but there is the glow of an inner warmth
from you in me, from me in you.
That warmth will transfigure the stranger’s child,
and you bear it me, begot by me.
You have transfused me with splendour,
you have made a child of me.”
He puts an arm about her strong hips.
Their breath embraces in the air.
Two people walk on through the high, bright night.

Mention of Arnold Schoenberg on a concert program can keep audiences away in droves, as many did when we programmed Pierrot Lunaire in 1989. Some view the composer as a 20th century revolutionary, inventor of a wretched atonal system called the twelve-tone technique. Verklärte Nacht, Op. 4, however, is a tonal work from the composer’s early 20’s when his “typical utterances sounded like Haydn sonatas” and he had not yet even ventured upon “adolescent Wagnerism.” As for other modernists, Charles Ives was already evolving his “incredible ultramodernism of the American ’90’s” but the youthful Stravinsky, years before Le Sacre, was still “playing marbles in Oranienbaum.” (Lawrence Gilman in the New York Herald Tribune in 1939.)

May 25, 2016

Music and Dance v. Parkinson's

I recently attended "Update on Parkinson's Disease" by an eminent neurology professor. From his purely medical point of view "nothing new" has happened since discovery of the response to L-Dopa in the 1960's and probably nothing will for years to come. You start L-Dopa when the patient needs medicine for tremor and reduced mobility, the medicine helps for awhile but then becomes less and less effective as the disease relentlessly progresses. We can't do anything to slow the progression.

There can be no better illustration of the 1) insadequacy of a purely medical approach and, 2) truth that any person's (and their family's) experience with Parkinson's depends mainly on what they can learn about the condition in order to help themselves.

Almost 80% of people with Parkinson's initially consult their doctor for one of four kinds of symptoms, the 'motor' symptoms of Parkinson's: 

  1. Tremor
  2. Clumsy, weak limb
  3. Stiff, aching limb
  4. Gait disturbance
Correct diagnosis may be delayed among patients in the last three categories, especially by primary care physicians who care for half of all patients in the US with the condition.

The professor barely touched on the 'non-motor' manifestations of Parkinson's, probably because they don't respond well to his purely medical treatment. But they increase the distress--and risk of falls--of Parkinson patients: 

  • anosmia (loss of sense of smell)
  • micrographia (smaller and smaller writing)
  • sweating, salivation, dysphagia (poor swallowing)
  • bladder disturbance and constipation
  • sleep disturbance including sleep apnea
  • heart rhythm and blood pressure increase and/or decrease
  • postural and balance disturbance (lightheadedness and problems remaining upright)
  • depression (often limiting necessary mobility)
  • dementia (a late complication)
  • falls (cause often misinterpreted, "I tripped," but a serious complication)

Responsibilities of people with Parkinson's are many, ranging from discovering precisely how and when the medicine acts in his/her case in order to determine the dose levels and intervals, to finding how to mitigate all the manifestations, medically and in other ways. 

One of the other ways is exercise. A stringent Cochrane review of 16 studies in 2015 concluded: 
treadmill training in patients with PD may improve . . .gait speed and stride length. . . . The results must be interpreted with caution . . . and it is not known how long improvements last. . . .
It seems reasonable to extend those results, 1) to all kinds of exercise -- from Tai Chi to tango -- whatever each individual can do regularly and, 2) to the assumption that benefits will probably continue so long as the exercise continues.

Oliver Sacks and others have emphasized that Parkinson patients tend to synchronize with a rhythmic beat. For example, their small rapid steps, called "marche a petit pas," will lengthen and slow when they march to a real march, like Stars and Sripes Forever, that bandmasters customarily conduct at 120 beats/minute, twice each second. Watch David Leventhal do that in the dance studio: (if you don't see the video below, click here then return to this page)


Note how Leventhal and his class synchronize their arms, legs, and torsos to the beat.

Walking, of course, is great exercise partly because it is available to almost everyone at home without a treadmill and also can be done in company of (and synchrony with) others. Walkers with Parkinson's could play a march on a smartphone and split the music into two pairs of earbuds.

Or they could use a walking stick or staff. Rhythmic placing of the staff ahead along the path creates the beat. When the staff is held loosely, a heavier expanded crown swings forward (like a metronome) and the tip backwards then forward again as the walker takes 3-4 steps past it. The walker can thus coordinate a march to a steady full metronomic cycle.

The neurologist-inventor of the "Neurostaff" claims furthermore that:
"The incorporation of the arms and legs in a whole body motion creates a synergy of proprioceptive sensations providing the brain with additional posture information to deliver better balance and hence psychological confidence."

Thus the tip of a staff on the ground or floor provides not only a beat but also a third source of proprioceptive (position sense) signals to the the sensorimotor regions of cerebral cortex that program walking. Once Parkinson patients accustom themselves to the walking stick, their small steps may become longer (as seen on Balance becomes more stable with three points of contact, falls less frequent, and confidence increases. (I find that to be true for myself and I don't have Parkinson's.)

Of course you can also use the neurostaff as a baton to conduct a band playing a Sousa march (probably the original purpose of now-twirled batons in front of bands)! Or to ward off animals or small children.

Exercise is just one method people with Parkinson's can help themselves. Singing in a choir is another and perhaps a discussion in another post. The hypothesis that Parkinson's relates to environmental toxins entering the body through the gastrointestinal or olfactory system and then moving through the nervous system like infectious agents was also not mentioned in the Update.  Another fascinating question.

April 25, 2016

Purple BRain

The unexpected death last week caused me try to recall what planet I lived on when Prince burst onto the stages of earth. Before last week if someone had mentioned "Purple Rain" I would have imagined some kind of climate aberration. I was trying to make a go as a medical associate professor and celebrating the fact that Gretna Music had just signed Dave Brubeck, Marian McPartland, George Shearing and members of the Chicago Symphony to our summer concert schedule. Prince was a star that appeared at the far edge of my universe.

Until last week I could not have named any of the songs that have become, beyond my awareness, cultural treasures known to more humans than the combined songs of Schubert, Schumann, Mahler and maybe even Walt Disney. My aging ears can't even understand the words. The performance video clips celebrating Prince's life are all new to me.

Now at first hearing much of the music sounds to me like other rock music: loud, harmonically, lyrically and rhythmically simple, opaquely arranged, and frankly uninteresting. The costumes and prancing around resemble angry aggressive preening male strutting. Lights, smoke, sexual gestures are all apparently necessary to hold the attention of younger generations who probably can't find middle C on a piano. It's more about performance, and social commentary, than music.

I admit I am missing something important, that Prince was an example of new and valid music, that he was probably a genius, that he was a wonderful and charitable human, the loss of whom I mourn. I wish I had paid more attention to his work and learned to understand it and know him. I am embarrassed that my behavior is exactly what I have criticized in others, in particular the tendency to arbitrarily categorize music made by humans, confine my listening to just one or two categories and dismiss the others as not worthy of my time.

So why don't I understand Prince? I can think of two reasons, though there are undoubtedly more. 1) Dan Levitin, musical psychologist, says:

"Fourteen is a sort of magical age for the development of musical tastes. Pubertal growth hormones make everything we’re experiencing, including music, seem very important. We’re just reaching a point in our cognitive development when we’re developing our own tastes. And musical tastes become a badge of identity."
At age 14 I was playing in an orchestra at Interlochen. When Prince arrived, my musical tastes at age 40+ were set and my brain was less receptive to new ones, though not totally unreceptive.

2) I didn't listen to rock music (Elvis at my age of 14, others after). When my brain was most receptive, during my first two decades, I listened to Schubert, Mozart and Beethoven. Tastes laid down early are fed by listening through life.

If I understood, maybe I would have a fuller life. I am not alone in this. Others close to me have told me the same. But before you label us as compleat musical snobs, tell me how many of Schubert's songs you can name. Here's the best obit I have seen.

April 14, 2016

Our Summer of Love

by Carl Ellenberger, MD

“As much as I’d like to believe there’s a truth beyond illusion, I’ve come to believe that there’s no truth beyond illusion. Because, between ‘reality’ on the one hand, and the point where the mind strikes reality, there’s a middle zone, a rainbow edge where beauty comes into being, where two very different surfaces mingle and blur to provide what life does not: and this is the space where all art exists, and all magic. 

And—I would argue as well—all love....”

--The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt 

From Shakespeare’s “thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings” to  [I❤️My Labradoodle] “love” is an overused word. Love you, as we say goodbye to a friend. Give her my love. Love your necklace! I’d love to, in response to an invitation. I love you, from the silenced lips of a diva throwing kisses to a raving audience. ’Google’ “love” for 4.6 trillion more examples!

The word defies definition; dictionaries suggest affection more intense than the equally common word “like.” I like Justice Potter Stewart’s workaround: “I know it when I see it” (applied to an even more problematic word) but time has not always proved me right. 

Ancient Greeks worshipped an Olympian goddess, Aphrodite, who with her companion Eros, embodied erotic love as well as beauty, pleasure and procreation. Their word, agápē served for universal transcendent love between God(s) and mankind, and philēo expressed brotherly love. It makes sense to break up a broad concept into manageable pieces. For most serious observers love has a purely spiritual source uninfluenced by external social pressures. St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13) considered love as God’s spiritual gift to humans:

And now abide faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love.

Poets may have the best chance at a definition in words:
Love is anterior to life,
Posterior to death,
Initial of creation, and
The exponent of breath.
—Emily Dickinson

Love gives naught but itself and takes naught but from itself.
Love possesses not nor would it be possessed;
For love is sufficient unto love.
—Kahlil Gibran

Over the centuries what has shaped our concept of love most strongly has been art. “It is through novels, poems, songs and, latterly, films that we have acquired our ideas about what aspects of our feelings we should value and where our emotional emphases should fall.” (Alain de Botton in Financial Times, Apr 22, 2016) “This is unfortunate,” he continues. “It’s not that the art has been bad; indeed a lot of it has reached the highest aesthetic pitch. It’s simply that representations of love in culture have frequently been profoundly misleading at the psychological level.” Too bad, he muses, that Madame Bovary could not have read Flaubert’s novel before she decided her marriage was humdrum and began her ultimately fatal flings!

Part of the problem could be that scientists have yet to discover how to measure love, though we can quantify memory and intelligence and blood pressure. Can we use the duration of a kiss? The eloquence of an expression? Fervor measured in kilowatt hours? In dark moods I may think that true love will be revealed by the one who comforts me when I’m dying. Psychologists use the word “limerence” to stand for an almost instantaneous but short-lasting bloom of attraction that eventually fades (often leaving all sorts of problems). Even long-lasting love seems to vary in quality and apparent intensity over a lifetime. Love eludes measurement as well as a clinical definition. 

Scientists can measure the hormone oxytocin, endorphins, and the brain neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, chemicals that ‘mediate’ emotional experiences such as pleasure in close relationships. They flow among ‘pleasure’ regions in the brain: the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens and the insula, the parts of the brain also most affected by addictive drugs. But none of these measurements help much to understand love in daily life.

Music, In pathways parallel to language, activates similar neural networks in the brain, and stimulates the same neurotransmitters and hormones as love and other pleasures. Ancient Greek actors sang their tragedies to enhance the emotional impact of the stories. 

The Met Opera’s recent premiere of Donizetti’s Roberto Devereux demonstrated the awesome power of love — loving is indeed "playing with fire,” both its needed and welcoming heat as well as its power to destroy—and showed how music can express that power. Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann knew this as did other composers including Gustav Mahler:“With songs one can express so much more than the words directly say…. The text actually constitutes only a hint of the deeper content that is to be drawn out of it, of the treasure that is to be hauled up.”  The Met’s Elektra demonstrated the awesome power of music to bring an ancient tragedy back to a new life after thousands of years, and remain truly hair-raising to humans living now.

Love is rarely more powerful than when it is lost, through death and by leaving and being left. “. . . there is no way in the world that one can talk, sing or write about love without facing the powerful element of loss that is inherent in loving someone, as well as the everlasting hold it has on one when that love is joyful and connected, profound and caring, and passionate, which is what I feel for you. It is something I am unwilling to give up just yet, which creates its own dilemma given the complete uncertainty of our lives . . . . (anon.)   Music, poetry and art enter the picture here too as both a means of expressing the pain of loss and for healing and of solace. 

Music can also be a sexual stimulant, though you may argue that some contemporary performers go beyond civilized limits to engage pubescent 14-year-olds just in process of developing life-long musical taste and identities. Musical psychologist, Dan Levitin, also claims that couples who spend time listening to music ‘out loud’ together make love more frequently than those who listen in solitude through ear buds. ‘Out loud’ music in homes, he further claims, makes entire families happier. 

And think of it: music on our stage synchronizes the brain activity of all of us sitting together in the audience! Your mind might wander to the “Furtwängler concerts,” music of German masters— Bruckner, Beethoven, Wagner — broadcast in 1944 Germany and heard by both the “free” German people and inmates of Buchenwald through the camp public address system. Music finds its special conduits among humans.

As agápē inspired Bach, love inspires other composers. Robert Schumann must have made Clara Weick feel abundantly loved by courting her with over 200 love songs, such as “Widmung” (“Dedication”) played with other Schumann love songs for us by Lise de la Salle on Aug 14. Friedrich Rückert wrote the words: “You are my heart and soul, my bliss and pain, my heaven, my good angel, my better self.” As you listen, note how the music can make those words, though only imagined in the piano version, more powerful. After Clara married Schumann their love and his compositions changed. He dedicated his Piano Quintet (July 31) to Clara, as Wagner later composed Siegfried Idyll as a present for his wife, Cosima (July 10). 

Long after Robert’s death Clara and Brahms remained unmarried lovers for the rest of their lives. Late in life Brahms dedicated to Clara Six Piano Pieces, op.118, in my view some of the most poignant instrumental expressions of love. I wish we could have played those pieces for the two lovely ladies we have lost since last summer, Nancy Hatz, age 100 and Pat Pinsler, age 89, in return for their abiding love of music and Mt. Gretna, though Leon Fleisher’s All the Things You Are by Jerome Kern was a perfect farewell for Nancy. She threw a kiss to Leon from the front row.

Humans have always made music. Some scientists argue that it has endured since the appearance of our species (homo sapiens, maybe even earlier) because those who play or sing may have an evolutionary selective advantage: singers (and dancers like BalletX on Sept 3), may pass on their genes more often than their less expressive, or less graceful, competitors.

We arrived at “love” as a programming theme for this summer in a roundabout way, first landing at “Sweet Sixteen” but then remembering that 2017 will be the 50th Anniversary of the original “Summer of Love” in San Francisco and around the world, though some of us remained more or less oblivious to that until afterwards. (I was in the Army.) We quickly realized that Jimi Hendrix and The Grateful Dead have passed on and probably wouldn’t appeal to our audiences. And none of us knew where to find any good acid anyway. This summer we’ll venture only so far toward Haight-Ashbury as Hollywood. (Alexis Cole sings her unique versions of Disney love songs on July 28.)

Our choice of love for a theme this summer may prove prescient as the election year unfolds. We hope our concerts will replenish love in the air, at least in our neighborhood and in your hearts, after its trampling during a long tedious and rancorous election season.

More summer highlights not mentioned above include: a Dvorak Romance (July 31), Sibelius’ The Lovers  and Schoenberg’s Transfigured Night (July 10), Wagner’s Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde and pieces from Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet (August 14). Many more lovely works to come are listed in this booklet.

We hope you have had love in your life. Without it, and music of course, life is hardly worth living.

The late harpsichordist, Doris Ornstein, and the author 
discussing Bach in 1989 in Lancaster’s St. James Church